"A race condition is a bug that occurs when the outcome of a program depends on which of two or more threads reaches a particular block of code first. Running the program many times produces different results, and the result of any given run cannot be predicted." — Managed Threading Best Practices
Race condition bugs are solved with proper thread synchronization.
"When multiple threads can make calls to the properties and methods of a single object, it is critical that those calls be synchronized. Otherwise one thread might interrupt what another thread is doing, and the object could be left in an invalid state. A class whose members are protected from such interruptions is called thread-safe." — Synchronizing Data for Multithreading
"A deadlock occurs when each of two threads tries to lock a resource the other has already locked. Neither thread can make any further progress." — Managed Threading Best Practices
Deadlocks are solved by providing timeouts when trying to access a locked resources, such as with Monitor.TryEnter().
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